Copper fungicide

Dirtmechanic

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It gets used in very heavy rainfall areas which are deficient in copper, very humid & have lots of anthracnose problems.
Else not usually the best option.
For Tomato leaf mold, Botrytis Cinerea, powdery mildew & bacterial leaf spot, (1/100) teaspoon of Borax in a gallon of water works better than Copper & is much safer.
(1/2) teaspoon of Citric acid per gallon of water is also responsibly effective & even safer than Borax.
For such small amounts of powerful borax or herbicide or other chemistry, taking advantage of dilution helps. For the 1/100 borax example, since 100 x 1/100= 1tsp, then a teaspoon in a 128oz gallon of water can be mixed and put on a shelf. When needed 1.28 oz ounces (38.3 mL) of premix can then be more easily and safely measured out into a gallon of water. Borax weighs 1.71 g per mL if you hear about or want to use a formula involving mass percentages like is used for fertilizer.
 

ZinHead

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For such small amounts of powerful borax or herbicide or other chemistry, taking advantage of dilution helps. For the 1/100 borax example, since 100 x 1/100= 1tsp, then a teaspoon in a 128oz gallon of water can be mixed and put on a shelf. When needed 1.28 oz ounces (38.3 mL) of premix can then be more easily and safely measured out into a gallon of water. Borax weighs 1.71 g per mL if you hear about or want to use a formula involving mass percentages like is used for fertilizer.
No it unfortunately can't be done that way!
Most Boron salts dramatically transition water solubility with temperature, pH, light exposure, ion exchanges & microbial activities.
Boron dramatically increases microbial activities of some microbes & suppresses activities of others. It is also a quorum sensing catalyst.
It tends to crystallize & precipitate over time.
Sodium from Sodium TetraBorate tends to ion exchange with (Calcium & Magnesium) Sulfate, Calcium Carbonate, etc.
You end up with precipitated boric acid crystals over time, which don't dissolve well.
Creating (Borax-Glycerinate) a fully water soluble liquid, which is extremely easy to measure, is also problematic.
Glycerin increases E.Coli production of Indole.
Indole causes Xanthomonas to become invasive.
Best to dissolve a very small pinch in hot water just before use.
Mix very well.
Spray branches after removing infected leaves.
Plant will grow new healthy leaves.
Never put in the soil, as borax & boric acid don't transport through the cambium well.
They go up the vascular phloem to the leaves, then back to the lateral meristem phloem.
If it is hot & dry Boron will precipitate at the stomata & not make it back to the phloem.
Must be sprayed directly onto branches to insure that stem cells get Boron.
Best solution temperature is (100°F to 120°F)
Saturate the branches, nodes & fruit spurs.
 

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No it unfortunately can't be done that way!
Most Boron salts dramatically transition water solubility with temperature, pH, light exposure, ion exchanges & microbial activities.
Boron dramatically increases microbial activities of some microbes & suppresses activities of others. It is also a quorum sensing catalyst.
It tends to crystallize & precipitate over time.
Sodium from Sodium TetraBorate tends to ion exchange with (Calcium & Magnesium) Sulfate, Calcium Carbonate, etc.
You end up with precipitated boric acid crystals over time, which don't dissolve well.
Creating (Borax-Glycerinate) a fully water soluble liquid, which is extremely easy to measure, is also problematic.
Glycerin increases E.Coli production of Indole.
Indole causes Xanthomonas to become invasive.
Best to dissolve a very small pinch in hot water just before use.
Mix very well.
Spray branches after removing infected leaves.
Plant will grow new healthy leaves.
Never put in the soil, as borax & boric acid don't transport through the cambium well.
They go up the vascular phloem to the leaves, then back to the lateral meristem phloem.
If it is hot & dry Boron will precipitate at the stomata & not make it back to the phloem.
Must be sprayed directly onto branches to insure that stem cells get Boron.
Best solution temperature is (100°F to 120°F)
Saturate the branches, nodes & fruit spurs.
Well those are good points but I have a concern. The change of 1 pinch ( pinch US ) unit for a volume and capacity measure equals = into 0.31 ml ( milliliter ) as per its equivalent volume and capacity unit type measure often used. 1\100th of a 5mL Tsp is much less, .05 mL, than what was suggested in the first prior post. Would the 620% increase in boron by using a pinch instead of 1\100th be a problem or do you suggest diluting it across 6 gallons of water? Boron can be very strong.
 

ZinHead

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Well those are good points but I have a concern. The change of 1 pinch ( pinch US ) unit for a volume and capacity measure equals = into 0.31 ml ( milliliter ) as per its equivalent volume and capacity unit type measure often used. 1\100th of a 5mL Tsp is much less, .05 mL, than what was suggested in the first prior post. Would the 620% increase in boron by using a pinch instead of 1\100th be a problem or do you suggest diluting it across 6 gallons of water? Boron can be very strong.
These are safe directions.
StollerUSA's Sugar Mover is 70% Boric Acid, 26% Borax, 3% Urea, 1% Sodium Molybdate & hormones.
Their mixture recommendation is 48 times as strong.
They mostly sell to cool humid places with heavy rain for crops that require a lot of Boron.
My recommendation is safe even for deserts.
Boron salts are not very water soluble.
Most Boron in a plant becomes localized with Calcium in a cell & doesn't relocate.
Far better to do frequent ultra small amounts onto the newest youngest cells.
That is why nodes, apical meristem, branches & fruit spurs are the target zones.
(1/100) teaspoon is optimal per my research.
A very small pinch is OK
StollerUSA is recommending a cup per 100 gallons, not to exceed 1 quart per acre.
That's approximately (1/2) teaspoon per gallon.
Way too strong in my opinion!!!!!!
A pinch per gallon spray on branches very early in the morning is not a problem.
 

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These are safe directions.
StollerUSA's Sugar Mover is 70% Boric Acid, 26% Borax, 3% Urea, 1% Sodium Molybdate & hormones.
Their mixture recommendation is 48 times as strong.
They mostly sell to cool humid places with heavy rain for crops that require a lot of Boron.
My recommendation is safe even for deserts.
Boron salts are not very water soluble.
Most Boron in a plant becomes localized with Calcium in a cell & doesn't relocate.
Far better to do frequent ultra small amounts onto the newest youngest cells.
That is why nodes, apical meristem, branches & fruit spurs are the target zones.
(1/100) teaspoon is optimal per my research.
A very small pinch is OK
StollerUSA is recommending a cup per 100 gallons, not to exceed 1 quart per acre.
That's approximately (1/2) teaspoon per gallon.
Way too strong in my opinion!!!!!!
A pinch per gallon spray on branches very early in the morning is not a problem.
How often for soil application? Brassica and so forth?
 

ZinHead

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How often for soil application? Brassica and so forth?
I recommend that you never put any Boron products in the soil.
Environment is getting hotter & dryer.
Boron which enters through the roots primarily ends up at the stomata.
Boron acts as a co-catalyst to Magnesium at hyperventilating the stomata!
Excess Boron in the soil can very quickly kill a plant in a hot dry environment.
Borax in very small amounts sprayed on dormant auxiliary nodes stimulates stem cells to assimilate Calcium long before leaves & branches are formed.
Those leaves are high in Calcium Pectate & their stomata breathing pores can easily & quickly fully close when needed.
Such plants are far more heat & drought tolerant.
Boron is a co-catalyst what it does in a plant depends upon when & where it entered the cells.
Boron when put in the soil causes elongation of roots, yet reduces root hair & lateral branching of roots. This has been scientifically documented & vetted, yet is not yet understood.
Boron is a very strong quorum sensing aka QS agent.
It can alter or even disrupt symbiosis in the soil especially mycorrhizae if levels are too high.
Highly recommend not exceeding (1/100) teaspoon per gallon of water sprayed on branches twice a month.
Some fast growing species like corn & okra, can be sprayed weekly.
 

Dirtmechanic

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Boron sounds like it acts as an auxin at low levels. We are fairly wet here in Alabama while AZ can be very dry. Does boron leach away readily as we have 58 inches of rain annually here?
 

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Is copper fungicide safe to use? I read it can built up in the soil. How much would you have to use to cause harm? I was just going to use it on tomato leaves if I started to get any problems.
I do not know if it is actually safe. I would not worry about tomato leaves-they start to look bad as the season goes on. If you think you have diseases use disease resistant varieties best year, use crop rotation, and disinfect your cages ever year. I soak them in bleach and water. I know copper in high amounts can be carcinogenic especially for women. I do not know if there are safe forms.
 

ZinHead

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Boron sounds like it acts as an auxin at low levels. We are fairly wet here in Alabama while AZ can be very dry. Does boron leach away readily as we have 58 inches of rain annually here?
Boron leaches at high (pH & temperature) & precipitates at low pH & low temperature.
Boron is a co-catalyst to (Calcium, Potassium, Magnesium & Sodium), as well as Gibberellins, Auxins, Cytokinins, Abscisic acid, Ethylene.
It is just as easy to accidentally have an Abscisic acid reaction as an Auxin reaction if treatment is in the wrong place, at the wrong time, at the wrong pH, or wrong quality, especially if during water stress.
If an Auxin effect is desired it must be mixed with acids which maximum Calcium water solubility at low pH & sprayed on the apical meristem (2 to 8 ) weeks before desired Auxin reaction.
If Gibberellins effects, needs to be sprayed on nodes at Borax natural pH state (2 to 3) weeks before blooming.
If a Ethylene reaction, then pre-glycerinated & sprayed on lateral phloem meristem of branches, fruit spurs & fruit 3 weeks before harvest.
Spraying on leaves during hot dry or water stress times triggers Abscisic acid!!!!
 

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